Herb glossary

Door Groundzero gepubliceerd op Saturday 05 April 23:49

Adaptogens
Herbs that improve the body's ability to adapt to stress of any sort, including infection, mental stress, or fatigue. Seem to change the threshold of resistance to damage by supporting the adrenal glands and possibly the pituitary glands.
Examples: Ginseng

Alteratives
Herbs that restore the proper function of the body, usually through altering metabolism by improving the tissues' ability to metabolise nutrients and eliminate wastes. Many of these herbs act through the kidneys, liver, lungs, bowels, or skin to eliminate wastes. Some stimulate digestion, some are antimicrobial, and some work through actions not as yet understood.
Generally used as first line medicines in conditions of chronic inflammation or degeneration, for example, any sort of chronic skin condition, many types of arthritis, and auto-immune illnesses.
Most herbs that have a primary action on the liver or kidneys can be considered alterative.
Examples: Burdock, Cleavers, Nettle

Anhydrotics
Herbs that decrease sweating.
Examples: Astralgus

Anodynes
Herbs that reduce pain by reducing the sensitivity of the nerves. Synonymous with ANALGESICS.
Examples: Lady's Slipper, Opium

Anthelminthics
Destroy or expel worms from the digestive system.
Examples: Garlic, Tansy, Wormwood

Anti-Arthritics
Relieve gout or other arthritic conditions.

Anti-Catarrhals
Help remove excessive mucus, generally from the upper respiratory tract. Mucus is generally produced in the body's effort to remove infective organisms or to remove excessive carbohydrates. Some of these herbs make the mucus more watery so it is easier to expel, others decrease production.
Examples:Goldenseal, Elder, Peppermint

Anti-Convulsants
Herbs that help reduce or prevent seizures. Also called Anti-Epileptics.
Examples: Valerian, Black Cohosh

Anti-Diabetes
Herbs that help regulate and reduce blood sugar. Also called Hypoglycemics.
Examples: Garlic

Antiemetics
Herbs that reduce nausea and vomiting.
Examples: Black Horehound, Lemonbalm

Anti-Hypertensives
Herbs that reduce blood pressure.
Examples: Garlic, Barberry

Anti-Inflammatories
Helps the body combat inflammation. Herbs classed as emollients, demulcents, and vulneraries often do this. Some anti-inflammatory herbs contain salicylates, the chemicals on which aspirin is based; examples include Willow Bark, Wintergreen, Birch, and Black Haw. Some herbs contain precursors of steroidal compounds, and can balance the levels of steroids in the body; these include Liquorice, Wild Yam, and Ginseng. Others have a useful anti-inflammatory effect without a mechanism of action yet identified; these include Bogbean, Devil's Claw, Marigold flowers, and Black Cohosh.

Anti-Lithics
Helps prevent the formation of stones or gravel in the urine, and can help the removal of those already formed. May work by a combination of dissolving stones, washing out the components that could form them, or increasing urine flow so as to flush out the system.
Examples: Hydrangea

Anti-Microbials
Help the body destroy or resist pathogenic organisms. Some of these are actually antiseptic, killing the organisms (generally, "cidal" means organisms are killed, "static" means replication of organisms are stopped, and "fuge" means organisms, as in intestinal worms, are expelled.) Others support the function of the immune system to neutralise many pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and paracytes. These herbs can support the body in fighting off many infections, but there are certainly times when anti-biotics can be life-saving.
Examples: Echinacea, Myrrh, Garlic, Thyme, Eucalyptus, Wild Indigo, Sage

Anti-Mutagenics
Herbs that reduce spontaneous mutations within cells. This may help reduce incidence of cancer.
Examples: Comfrey

Anti-Scorbutics
Herbs rich in Vitamin C which prevent or cure scurvy, a disease caused by deficiency of this vitamin. Generally classed as ALTERATIVES.
Examples: Rose hips

Anti-Septics
Inhibit growth of bacteria, and prevent infection, putrefaction, cell decay, and pus formation. See ANTI-MICROBIALS.

Anti-Spasmodics
Helps prevent or ease muscle spasms in both skeletal muscles (the muscles that move bones) and smooth muscles (the muscles related to many of the body's involuntary functions, such as digestion). Many sedative, nervine, or hypnotic herbs also have anti-spasmodic effects. Those anti-spasmodic herbs with an affinity for the respiratory system are useful for asthma.
Examples: Cramp Bark, Black Haw


Anti-Thrombotics
Herbs that prevent formation of blood clots.
Examples: Garlic

Anti-Toxins
Herbs that act against the effects of specific toxins.
Examples: Black Cohosh, Angelica

Anti-Tussives
Herbs that reduce or prevent cough.
Examples: Wild Cherry

Aperients
 A mild and gentle laxative. Promote only the natural bowel movement and function. Bulk forming herbs soak up water in the gut, creating a larger volume of softer stool; examples are Psyllium, Flax seed, and guar gum. Other herbs stimulate normal muscle movements in the bowels, such as Rhubarb root, and Yellow Dock.

Aphrodisiacs
Herbs that increase sexual potency or excitement.
Example: Ginseng.

Aromatics
These herbs are characterised by a strong, usually pleasant odour that stimulates the digestive system. Often used in cooking to add flavour, they also aid digestion.
Examples: Caraway, Cardamon, Dill, Peppermint, Ginger

Astringents
Have a binding action on skin or mucous membranes that helps dry up mucous discharge, tone local blood vessels and varicosities, and stop bleeding. Most of these herbs are rich in tannins, compounds used to "tan" leather, which precipitate protein molecules; they produce a leathery, smooth coat over the tissue in question, thus reduce irritation on the surface by a mild numbing, reduce local inflammation by toning the vessels supplying the area, and create a barrier to infection in wounds and burns. Depending on the tissue they act upon, they are used to treat diarrhea, bleeding, mucous discharges, and the discomfort of varicosities and haemorrhoids.
Examples: Agrimony, Eyebright, Oak bark, Cranesbill, Raspberry leaves, Witch Hazel, Yarrow

Bitters
The bitter taste of these herbs seems to stimulate the release of digestive hormones in the gut. This stimulates appetite, and is of value in convalescence. It helps normalise the secretory functions of pancreas, duodenum, and liver. It increases the secretion of bile, and aids the liver in detoxification. There is also evidence that these herbs help the gut wall repair local damage. Note that these herbs should not generally be used in pregnancy (anything that increases gut contractions can also increase uterine contractility) Also called BITTER TONICS.
Examples: Wormwood, Rue, Gentian

Cardiacs and Cardiac TOnics
This term is used for most herbs that have an effect on the heart. In general the treatment of heart problems should be supervised by qualified professionals. Many of these herbs are extremely beneficial in the correct dosage, but some can be fatal if this fine line is crossed.
Examples: Lily of the Valley, Foxglove, and Broom should be used only under qualified supervision; Motherwort, Hawthorne, and Lime blossom are milder.

Carminatives
These herbs are generally rich in aromatic oils. Their main action is to soothe and settle the gut wall, easing gripping and allowing the removal of gas. Many of the aromatic herbs have a carminative effect.
Examples: Fennel, Ginger, Caraway

Cathartics
Herbs that clean waste material from the whole digestive system, including bowels, liver, and gall bladder. Can have a very strong effect. Due to the considerable griping they produce, are often used with ginger. Strong cathartics are often listed as poisonous, and should be used with caution.
Example: Aloes

Cholagogues
These herbs stimulate the flow of bile from the liver. Most of the remedies classified as BITTERS or HEPATICS also have cholagogue function. Bile aids in the digestion and assimilation of fats and fat-soluble nutrients. It also acts as a mild laxative to keep the bowels moving smoothly and prevent accumulation of material that could become toxic.
Examples: Balmony, Fringetree, Barberry, Goldenseal

Correctives
Herbs that render strong remedies more pleasant. Particularly herbs that lessen the griping common with purgatives and cathartics.
Examples: Ginger, Fennel

Demulcents
Herbs rich in mucilage which soothe and protect inflamed or irritated tissue. When they are used on the skin, demulcent herbs are called EMOLLIENTS. Depending on where they work, they can reduce irritation in the bowel and help heal ulcers, ease cough, or relax painful spasm in the bladder, ureters, and sometimes even the uterus.
Examples: Marshmallow, Slippery Elm

Detoxicants
Herbs that support the liver in removing toxic substances from the body. See HEPATICS. Contrast with ANTI-TOXINS, which work against specific toxins.

Diaphoretics
Herbs that promote sweating. This can help the vital function of removing waste products through the skin. Or it can help cool the body during a fever. They are thought to work by dilating the capillaries in the skin, which stimulates the sweat glands. Many of these herbs work as diaphoretics if taken hot, but as DIURETICS if taken cold.
Examples: Yarrow, Cayenne, Boneset

Diuretic
Strictly speaking, herbs that increase the formation and elimination of urine, but commonly used to refer to all herbs that have a beneficial effect on the urinary tract, so includes urinary demulcents, etc. The true diuretics can work by increasing blood flow to the kidneys, others actually effect the water reabsorption in the tubules of the kidneys. Contribute to overall health by helping the kidneys clear toxins from the system.
Examples: Bearberry, Couch Grass, Buchu, Corn Silk, Dandelion

Emetics
Herbs that cause vomiting. Have been used in the past in conditions characterised by a great deal of mucus, to clear the mucus from the body. In modern herbalism, used to cause forceful emptying in cases of poisoning.
Examples: Ipecacuanha

Emmenagogues
Herbs that stimulate menstrual flow, often used to refer to all herbs that normalise and tone the female reproductive system, although these remedies would better be called uterine tonics.
Examples: Blue Cohosh, False Unicorn Root, Pennyroyal, Rue, Squaw Vine, Yarrow


Emollients
Emollients have a soothing and healing effect like demulcents, but specifically on the skin.
Examples: Plantain, Flax seed, Chickweed


Estrogenics
Herbs that normalise the balance of estrogens in the body. Often supply compounds the body can make into estrogens if more are needed. These herbs are often used to ease the symptoms of menopause.
Examples: Angelica, Wild Yam

Expectorants
Herbs that help the body to remove excess mucous from the lungs. Stimulating expectorants work by irritating the lining of the bronchioles to stimulate expulsion of mucous; examples include Balm of Gilead, Elecampagne, Violet, and White Horehound. Many of these herbs can act as EMETICS in large doses. The relaxing expectorants soothe bronchial spasm and promote the production of a more watery mucous that is easier to cough up; examples are Coltsfoot, Hyssop, Marshmallow, Mullein, and Plantain.

Febrifuges
Herbs that reduce fever. In general, herbalists don't use something to reduce fever unless it also has some beneficial effect on the infection or inflammation causing the fever. They see fever as one of the body's ways of fighting infection, and try to use herbs that support the immune system and the other cleansing processes of the body. Thus, the DIAPHORETICS can lower body temperature by promoting perspiration, but they also help the body cleanse. Similarly, circulatory STIMULANTS increase blood flow to the skin and so promote a cleansing sweat. ALTERATIVES can act through an ANTI-MICROBIAL action, or through stimulation of the immune system, and can also help the body clear out the toxic waste products of an infective process.

Galactogogues
Herbs that increase the flow of milk in a lactating woman. Generally need to be used in the context of a very good diet and general health to be effective.
Examples: Milk Thistle, Fennel, Fenugreek, Nettles, Vervain, and Cleavers.

Haemostatics
Herbs which stop or prevent bleeding. ASTRINGENTS are often haemostatic.
Examples: Yarrow, Cranesbill

Hepatics
Herbs that support the function of the liver. They tone, strengthen, and in some cases increase bile flow (see CHOLAGOGUES ). BITTERS often exert their function through stimulation of the liver. Important for general health as the liver is the primary organ responsible for removing toxins from the body.
Examples: Dandelion, Boldo, Milk Thistle, Aloe, Barberry, Yellow Dock

Hypnotics
Herbs that help induce sleep. This effect can result from muscle-relaxing properties, volatile oils that reduce psychological tension, or remedies that act on the nervous system itself. Almost any hypnotic remedy can become addictive if used consistantly for any long period. Should be used as part of a holistic approach to sleeplessness, including exercise, diet, relaxation exercises, and counselling regarding sources of stress.
Examples: Passion Flower, Hops, Skullcap, Valerian

Laxatives
Herbs that promote contractions of the bowels to stimulate removal of faeces. Generally differentiated from the gentler APERIENTS which promote normal bowel activity, in that these stronger herbs act by irritating the bowels so they evacuate more forcefully.
Examples: Senna, Cascara, Aloe

Lypolytics
Herbs that normalise lipids in the body. These herbs are gaining attention as we learn more about the effects of the ratios of different types of lipids in the causation of heart disease.
Examples: Dong Quai, Garlic

Nervines
      Herbs that exert an effect on the nervous system.


Nervine Relaxants
Herbs that promote relaxation of the nervous system. Often act to sedate or produce sleep, or to relax muscles.
Examples: Black Cohosh, Chamomile, Linden blossom, Passion flower, Black Haw, Cramp Bark, Lady's slipper, Hops, California Poppy, Lavender, St John's Wort, Valerian, Hyssop

Nervine Stimulants
Herbs that stimulate the nervous system
Examples: Coffee, Tea, Mate, Kola Nut

Nervine Tonics
Herbs that support and strengthen the nervous system.
Examples: Oats, St John's Wort, Vervain, Skullcap

Nutritives and Nutritive TonicsHerbs that nourish the body. Useful in convalescence or anorexia.
Examples: Marshmallow, Hemp seeds

Parturients
Herbs that support and facilitate the birthing process. These are often uterine tonics or stimulants.
Examples: Raspberry

Pectorals
Herbs that strengthen the lungs. All expectorants are pectorals, but this class includes herbs that aid the lungs through other actions as well.
Examples: Elecampagne, Lobelia, Blood Root, Pleurisy Root

Refrigerants
Herbs that lower body temperature.

Rubrefacients
Herbs that, when applied to the surface of the skin, promote vasodilatation and localised increase in blood flow; this causes a reddening of the skin, hence the name. Increased blood flow allows the agents in the blood that fight infection to come to the area in force. It also allows for increased cleansing and nourishment of the affected part. Hence, plasters of these agents are often used in arthritis, or in localised infections. VESICANTS actually produce blistering, but are seldom used in modern herbalism.
Examples: Mustard, Cayenne, Ginger, Nettle, Horseradish


Stimulants
Generally, herbs that cause an increase in body functions. In older herbals, this term refers specifically to stimulants of the circulatory system; examples would be Bayberry, Prickly Ash, Yarrow, and Cayenne.

Stomachics
Herbs that tone and stimulate action of the stomach. See BITTERS.

Stypics
Herbs with ASTRINGENT action on the skin.

Thymoleptics
Herbs that raise the mood and counteract depression. With the advent of modern pharmacology, it has been found that these herbs have an action on the chemicals that transmit nerve impulses in the brain; these "neurotransmitters" have been found to be in imbalance in most cases of severe depression.
Examples: St John's Wort, Passion Flower.

Tonics
Herbs that strengthen and support the function of a specific organ or, in some herbals, the whole body.
See BITTER TONICS, CARDIAC TONICS, NERVINE TONICS, and UTERINE TONICS.
Examples: generally given in specific body systems, as above.

Uterine Tonics
Tone and normalise the function of the female reproductive system.
Examples: Black Cohosh, Blue Cohosh, Chaste Berry, False Unicorn Root, Motherwort, Raspberry, Squaw Vine

Vermicides
Herbs that kill intestinal worms. See ANTHELMINTHICS.

Vermifuges
Herbs that promote expulsion of intestinal worms. See ANTHELMINTHICS.

Vulneraries
Herbs that help wounds or inflammations to heal. Can refer to lesions of the skin or mucus membranes. Many ASTRINGENTS, DEMULCENTS, and EMOLLIENTS have vulnerary actions. Sometimes the vulnerary function is due to tannins producing an impervious layer that protects the wound as it heals. Sometimes mucilage soothes and keeps the tissue moist. Comfrey contains a compound called allantoin, which stimulates cell growth, and helps heal broken bones as well as skin. Herbs with ANTI-MICROBIAL action can also assist wound healing by guarding against infection.
Examples: Comfrey, Chickweed, Goldenseal, Marigold, Marshmallow, Plantain, Yarrow, Burdock, Willow Bark.

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